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Apple II and Apple II Plus Language Card
The Language Card ia a 16K RAM card that upgrades an Apple II into a full 64K RAM computer. See the photos.
The Apple II Plus had a total of 48 KB of RAM, expandable to 64 KB by means of the language card, an expansion card that could be installed in the computer's slot 0. The Apple's 6502 microprocessor could support a maximum of 64 KB of memory, and a machine with 48 KB RAM reached this limit because of the additional 16 KB of read-only memory and I/O addresses.
For this reason, the extra RAM in the language card was bank-switched over the machine's built-in ROM, allowing code loaded into the additional memory to be used as if it actually were ROM. Users could thus load Integer BASIC into the language card from disk and switch between the Integer and Applesoft dialects of BASIC with DOS 3.3's INT and FP commands just as if they had the BASIC ROM expansion card.
The language card was also required to use the UCSD Pascal and FORTRAN 77 compilers, which were released by Apple at about the same time. These ran under a non-DOS operating system called the UCSD P-System, which had its own disk format and included a "virtual machine" that allowed it to run on many different types of hardware.
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